Posts tagged PHP

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PHP – Manual Compilation – ld returned 1 exit status

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If you are compiling PHP manually and compilation prematurely halts due to a “ld returned 1 exit status” try issuing the following command from within the build directory, I was running into the same issue and the command worked for me.

$ -> gmake distclean
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Doctrine – PHP – Compare two Doctrine_Record Objects

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As part of a recent project to reduce the number of “rogue” update statements issued when a Symfony form (with embedded forms) was saved I had to create an algorithm to compare two Doctrine_Record objects, to determine if an update should occur or not, so I thought I would share with the community.

Below is the logic, however it does not follow the DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself) principle, I did it this way on purpose so you can easily implement into your codebase.


$array1 = array('id' => 1, 'name' => 'element1');

$array2 = array('id' => 1, 'name' => 'element1');

// For this too work, these objects must extend from Doctrine_Record class

$object1 = new Object();

$object2 = new Object();

// fromArray will hydrate the object with values in the array

$object1->fromArray($array1);

$object2->fromArray($array2);

// Due to PHP being a loosely typed language, there were instances where, after hydration, some is_numeric scalars were strings or ints

// So this will ensure all is_numeric scalars are ints, which ensures an apples to apples comparison

$objectArray1 = array_map(function($value) { return (is_numeric($value)) ? (int) $value : $value; }, $object1->toArray(false));

$objectArray2 = array_map(function($value) { return (is_numeric($value)) ? (int) $value : $value; }, $object2->toArray(false));

$hash1 = md5(serialize($objectArray1));

$hash2 = md5(serialize($objectArray2));

$compareStatus = ($hash1 === $hash2) ? true : false;

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PHP – Magento – Zend – Missing Hash Function

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When it comes to manually configuring compiled applications on my systems, I am a minimalist, meaning that I always try to get away with the bare bones settings. Once in a great while this will come back to haunt me. In starting up a new project, I came across an issue where the Magento install process was throwing a fatal error regarding a ‘hash’ function (Zend Framework actually needed it). So I had to recompile with `–enable-hash` setting. Be sure to run a make clean before configure, otherwise your new setting won’t be picked up.

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PHPUnit – How to Run PHPUnit Against a Specific Test

7

The other day I was debugging an error in one of my unit tests, and found it hard to track down because when I ran PHPUnit, it ran all the tests contained in the file where my problem unit test was located. After some Googling and reading the PHPUnit Api Docs, I found that you can specify a test, among other tests, by adding a comment with the @group annotation. Using @group and any group name you wish, you can tell PHPUnit, from the command line, to test only tests belonging to a specific group.

Consider the following:

public function testArrayCount()
{
    $this->assertCount(2, array('foo', 'bar');
}

/**
 * @group grain
 */
public function testArrayPopulated()
{
    $this->assertTrue(empty(array()));
}

Notice how I specified the testArrayPopulated() method with a @group grain annotation, now I can tell PHPUnit to only test tests belonging to the grain group.

./phpunit --colors --group grain path/to/your/tests/

Now, when PHPUnit runs, it will only run tests against those tests to which you have assigned the grain group. This @group annotation is a really cool feature of PHPUnit and helped me a lot with debugging my unit tests.

–UPDATE–

Per Edo’s comments: You can also filter tests by adding ‘–filter testYourTestName’ (two hypens). This will make it so only that test or any test matching the string will be run, same benefits as group, but easier to implement. It does require you to put some thought into how you name the methods within your test.

Per Patrick’s comment: I corrected the order for the command line arguments. The options should ALWAYS go before the path to your tests.

Thanks for the feedback.

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PHP – PHPUnit – Use PHPUnit Without PEAR

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Abstract

PHPUnit is a great tool to protect us developers from introducing new defects when adding new features or re-factoring code. However there is one HUGE downside to PHPUnit; it must be installed using PEAR. Personally, I don’t like ‘auto-installers’, I’d prefer to know what exactly is happening behind the scenes with regards to which libraries are required and how they are being called. So when I needed to use PHPUnit on a recent project I shed a tear thinking I would have to break down and install using PEAR.

PHPUnit is not a mythical creature, it doesn’t have magical powers, and as such, it should not intimidate us. It is PHP code, plain and simple, and like any other PHP API Libraries it can be interwoven into our application. So after breaking down the PHPUnit source code, I realized it could be installed without going through PEAR, and without too much headache.

I wrote this article with the goal that it may help others, and maybe even make it’s way to the lead developer of PHPUnit, where he may start using a better autoloading strategy. However, I must warn you to not hold me responsible for any “issues” that may arise on your system by following this article, as it’s strictly demonstrative at this point. There may come a time where I add this code to a GIT repo and officially support it, but not at this point. If you are ok with that, then read on.

Also, note that you can change any of the following guidelines to suit your specific needs. What I am outlining here worked for me, but may not work for you, so feel free to change what you need to, in order to accomplish your end game.

Base Directories

To make things work, we need a base directories from which to work. As with any setting throughout this article, you can change to meet your needs.

Test directory

This directory will be where we put our actual unit tests:

/home/mpurcell/projects/core/test

Vendor directory

This directory will be the location where we download and extract PHPUnit source code:

/home/mpurcell/projects/vendor

Source Code:

Now that we have our directories in place, lets get PHPUnit source code. Normally you would use PEAR to download, extract, and prepare the source code, but personally I don’t like things of this nature being done for me, I am a big boy, I can handle it myself. So I download each of the core packages manually, then extract them, and set their correct directories in preparation for the next ‘Symlinks‘ step.

The PHPUnit developer uses Github as their version control repo, which is good, but sucks when trying to download packages, as the actual files are abstracted by an intermediary PHP script. What I ended up having to do was download to my local machine, then secure copy them over to the server. Once you have the source files on the server, run the following steps:


$ -> cd ~/projects/vendor

$ -> mkdir phpunit

$ -> cd phpunit

$ -> cp ~/sebastianbergmann-phpunit-3.6.7-9-gf5e159b.zip .

$ -> unzip sebastianbergmann-phpunit-3.6.7-9-gf5e159b.zip

# The unzip will result in a weird hash, so I just rename it to
# the correct version based on the original file name
$ -> mv sebastianbergmann-phpunit-f5e159b/ 3.6.7-9

# Don't need source file anymore
$ -> rm *.zip

# Now, we have phpunit locked into a version which we can quickly
# glean when we inspect symlinks to this library
# Lets get the other necessary packages
$ -> mkdir lib

$ -> cd lib
$ -> pwd
/home/mpurcell/projects/vendor/phpunit/lib

# Setup base dirs for phpunit add-ons
$ -> mkdir codeCoverage fileIterator timer

# Now lets copy our add-ons into their respective dirs
$ -> cp ~/sebastianbergmann-php-code-coverage-1.1.1-14-gdc2a15a.zip codeCoverage
$ -> cp ~/sebastianbergmann-php-timer-1.0.2-5-gb352e92.zip timer

# File iterator lib allows you to set a root directory, and phpunit will traverse the directory looking for unit tests
$ -> cp ~/sebastianbergmann-php-file-iterator-1.3.1-1-gbbaab46.zip fileIterator

# Now that we have the files in our lib directory, lets get them setup
$ -> cd codeCoverage
$ -> pwd
/home/mpurcell/projects/vendor/phpunit/lib/codeCoverage

$ -> unzip sebastianbergmann-php-code-coverage-1.1.1-14-gdc2a15a.zip
$ -> mv sebastianbergmann-php-code-coverage-dc2a15a/ 1.1.1-14
$ -> rm *.zip

$ -> cd ../fileIterator
$ -> pwd
/home/mpurcell/projects/vendor/phpunit/lib/codeCoverage

$ -> unzip sebastianbergmann-php-file-iterator-1.3.1-1-gbbaab46.zip
$ -> mv sebastianbergmann-php-file-iterator-bbaab46/ 1.3.1-1
$ -> rm *.zip

$ -> cd ../timer
$ -> pwd
/home/mpurcell/projects/vendor/phpunit/lib/codeCoverage

$ -> unzip sebastianbergmann-php-timer-1.0.2-5-gb352e92.zip
$ -> mv sebastianbergmann-php-timer-b352e92/ 1.0.2-5
$ -> rm *.zip

Ok, now you should have phpunit and it’s core libraries “installed” on your server. In this context, installed is a loose term, as the code isn’t really installed, it’s now available to be hooked into from your testing environment.

Symlinks

As with any 3rd party APIs introduced into your application, it is always best to abstract away version numbers, so you don’t force your application to require files with version numbers in a file’s uri. For example:

// Good
require_once 'path/to/ThirdParty_Vendor/Api/Class.php';

// Bad
require_once 'path/to/ThirdParty_Vendor-1.1.1-9/Api/Class.php';

Why does this matter? Because, when a new version of the file is released, and you upgrade, you won’t have to update all the code references. Instead, just change the related symlink and your application will work as before, except with the newer version of the file.

So lets make the PHPUnit libraries available to our testing environment:

$ -> cd ~/projects/core/test
$ -> mkdir lib
$ -> cd lib
$ -> pwd
/home/mpurcell/projects/test/lib

$ -> ln -s ~/projects/vendor/phpunit/3.6.7-9/PHPUnit
$ -> ln -s ~/projects/vendor/phpunit/lib/codeCoverage/1.1.1-14/PHP PHPCodeCoverage
$ -> ln -s ~/projects/vendor/phpunit/lib/fileIterator/1.3.1-1/File PHPFileIterator
$ -> ln -s ~/projects/vendor/phpunit/lib/timer/1.0.2-5/PHP PHPTimer

Ok, now we have hooks to phpunit libraries within our testing directory, onto the next step.

Bootstrap

A bootstrapper is meant to prepare a library for usage, and that’s exactly what we are going to do. This bootstrapper will setup include_paths along with a few other settings so we can use run our tests correctly. The code is posted here, otherwise it’s too hard to read in wordpress.

Autoloader

Here’s where the magic lies. This autoloader will know how to map files that PHPUnit is requiring, to their symlinked location. It’s pretty easy to follow, all we do is check for a namespace footprint (PHP_Timer), and if it exists, re-map it to our symlink (PHPTimer). The code is posted here, otherwise it’s too hard to read in wordpress.

Changes to PHPUnit Source code

Now for the ugly. It is NEVER a good idea to edit 3rd party (vendor) code directly, otherwise you update and forget about the changes and your app goes to hell. However in this instance I had no choice, and fortunately I was able to limit the change to just one location in the PHPUnit source code. It is a trivial change, but you should add a README to your ~/projects/vendor/phpunit directory to remind yourself to make this change for future upgrades (assuming the lead developer doesn’t change it himself).

My README file:

ATTENTION!
When upgrading phpunit, 1 change must be made to ensure unit tests work

Why:    This allows us to use our own autloader
File:   PHPUnit/Util/GlobalState.php
Line:   98
Change:
    From:    protected static $phpunitFiles;
    To:      public static $phpunitFiles;

This change makes it so we can override the singleton $phpunitfiles. If we don’t over-ride it, then PHPUnit will attempt to use it’s built-in autoloader, which doesn’t work with our setup. By setting the scope from protected to public, we can over-ride the value with an empty array, as the conditional used in source code check is ‘ === NULL’.

phpunit executable

Now we need to create the phpunit executable which will kick off the unit testing. When I was going through the PHPUnit source code, I noticed that the PEAR installer was just renaming the phpunit.php to phpunit. So, lets copy the phpunit executable which came with PHPUnit to our test directory and make a few minor changes:

$ -> pwd
/home/mpurcell/projects/core/test

$ -> cp ~/projects/vendor/phpunit/3.6.7-9/phpunit.php .

Now, make the following changes:

#!/usr/bin/env php

// Bring in our bootstrap file
require_once substr(__FILE__, 0, strpos(__FILE__, '/test')) . '/test/Bootstrap.php';

// Set our main define
define('PHPUnit_MAIN_METHOD', 'PHPUnit_TextUI_Command::main');

// Remember we set the scope of $phpunitfiles to public?
// Now we can set it to whatever we want, which is just an empty
// array, which allows our autoloader to handle loading files
PHPUnit_Util_GlobalState::$phpunitFiles = array();

// Kick this pig
PHPUnit_TextUI_Command::main();

Home Stretch

Finally, we made it. Now, we can call on the phpunit executable and run tests. First lets create a sample test:

$ -> pwd
/home/mpurcell/projects/core/test

$ -> touch CoreTest/ArrayTest.php

Now lets add an easy test:

<?php
class CoreTest_Api_Array_PackageTest extends PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase{
     public function testCount()
     {
         $this->assertCount(2, array('foo', 'bar'));
     }
}

Now, run the test:

$ -> pwd
/home/mpurcell/projects/core/test

$ -> ./phpunit/CoreTest/

Now your ArrayTest test should run (and pass). Notice that we passed a directory to the ./phpunit executable, you can pass a directory, or a specific test to meet your needs. The PHPFileIterator we setup will parse directories for any files ending in *Test.

Congratulations

Hopefully this article wasn’t too hard to follow, and your unit tests are running though PHPUnit, as if you installed through PEAR. If you wouldn’t mind taking the time to contact the lead developer, and let him know that he should drop PEAR and run an autoloader/bootstrap combo like many other PHP libraries/frameworks, I would greatly appreciate it. He has done a good job, but we need to make PHPUnit easier to install and set-up so others don’t get discouraged and give up unit tests altogether.

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Linux – PHP – Apache – HTTP Error 500

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Had a weird issue where my demo server was throwing 500 error when a request was made. I spent time digging into my nginx configs to see if there were a issue, once I was able to determine it was not nginx, I started tearing apart my apache vhosts to see what the issue was. It was tough to track down because neither nginx nor apache error logs were logging anything out of the ordinary.

I came across a serverfault.com post where someone suggested using the following command after making a request:

find /var/log/ -mmin -1

This command will return any files whose modtimes are less than a minute old. When I issued the command I noticed that my PHP error log was listed, so I tailed the error log and issued another request. Sure enough, an exception was being thrown because my bootstrap file for my core library could not make a needed database connection.

Now that I was aware that an exception was causing my apache server to issue a 500 response, I still couldn’t figure out why it wasn’t outputting the exception message. I started digging around my php.ini file and found that I had set `display_errors=off`. With display_errors set to off, apache will issue a 500 response rather than output the exception, which is a good thing b/c the exception message had some database connection information.

So if you are setting up an apache/php server and it’s throwing a 500 response, check the php error log too, you may have the same setup.

Also, I read that this type of behavior will occur if the php.ini file could not be read.

Symfony – Standard API for Logging Using __callStatic

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Last year I wrote an article on how to write a simple, standard logging class for Symfony (http://melikedev.com/2010/08/25/symfony-standard-api-for-logging/). This article will demonstrate how do to the same functionality in only a few lines of code using __callStatic(). For more info on __callStatic() check out http://melikedev.com/2011/10/31/php-__callstatic-method-overloading/

Before:

// located @ /lib/MyCustom/Api/Log.php
class MyCustom_Api_Log
{
    /**
     * Wrapper method for getting a symfony logger object
     *
     * @return object
     */
    public static function getLogger()
    {
        return sfContext::getInstance()->getLogger();
    }

    /**
     * Wrapper method for logging debug message
     *
     * @param string $message
     */
     public static function logDebug($message)
     {
         self::getLogger()->debug($message);
     }
    /**
     * Wrapper method for logging an error
     *
     * @param string $message
     */
     public static function logError($message)
     {
         self::getLogger()->err($message);
     }
}

// Example Usage
MyCustom_Api_Log::logError('Oh noes something went wrong');

After:

// located @ /lib/MyCustom/Api/Log.php
class MyCustom_Api_Log
{
    /**
     * Wrapper method for getting a symfony logger object
     *
     * @return object
     */
    public static function getLogger()
    {
        return sfContext::getInstance()->getLogger();
    }

    /**
     * Magic method for logging all supported log levels
     *
     * @param string
     * @param array
     */
     public static function __callStatic($level, $params)
     {
         // Only concerned with message at this time
         // However any number of params can be passed in
         $message = shift($params);

        self::getLogger()->$level($message);
     }
}

// All these calls are made to __callStatic, so no need for individual methods
MyCustom_Api_Log::err(array('Oh noes something went wrong'));
MyCustom_Api_Log::warn(array('Oh noes something went wrong'));
MyCustom_Api_Log::notice(array('Oh noes something went wrong'));

PHP – __callStatic() – Method Overloading

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In case you weren’t aware, PHP 5.3.x+ has provided a new method known as __callStatic(), which works the same as __call(), but as you may have guessed, it can be called statically. You can get more info from http://us.php.net/manual/en/language.oop5.overloading.php

Example:


class Foo
{
    public static function __callStatic($name, $params)
    {
        return 'Called ' . $name . ' with ' . implode(',', $params);
    }
}

echo Foo::bar(array('This is my message));

Linux – Apache – Php – php_network_getaddresses – Name or service not known

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Came across an issue where I was getting “SQLSTATE[HY000] [2002] php_network_getaddresses: getaddrinfo failed: Name or service not known” errors when one of my applications was trying to establish a connection to a MySQL db.

In my /etc/resolv.conf file I didn’t have the domain with the host DNS information, so I added it. At this point I was able to ping the host via command line, but was still getting the errors. After some Googling I came across http://albertech.net/2011/05/fix-php_network_getaddresses-getaddrinfo-failed-name-or-service-not-known/ where the author indicated that if you can ping the host via command line but are still getting the errors, try restarting Apache. So I followed his suggestion, restarted Apache, and it worked like a charm.

Symfony – PHP – Possibly Forking 1.x so Invested Companies don’t Lose Millions

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So there seems to be some rumblings from within the Symfony world that the dev team “may” fork 1.x in order to continue maintenance beyond the announced 2013 “end of life” window, rather than ending active development on 1.x and “hoping” everyone shifts to Symfony 2.

Source blog post @ http://test.ical.ly/2011/06/22/quo-vadis-symfony-1-4/ (lol @ FQDN).

I posted a comment on the blog, which is copied verbatim here in case it gets lost in the static.

It’s amazing that we are even having this type of discussion. We opted to use Symfony back in 0.x for some high traffic projects. Our company spent a lot of time and money training the dev team to correctly use the framework. And it wasn’t just the initial learning of moving from a hodge-podge code-base to MVC code-base, we also had to relearn new ways of doing things with some minor revisions (1.0 -> 1.2 forms for example). How much time was spent learning how to get the form system to work with some highly customized forms? A lot.

And now here we are on 1.4. Content and happy with the throughput the dev team is able to maintain. But now Symonfy says that 2.0 will be released and is completely different than 1.x? How is that fair to the companies, individuals, and hobbyists who have sunk time over the last four years ramping up to a point where we can take advantage of RAD (rapid app development) approach that Symfony provides? Granted, Symfony did extend the maintenance window of 1.x to 2013, but to completely abandon a great framework is callous and irresponsible, to be frank.

When 1.x is no longer supported, the dev team will just have to maintain 1.x as if it were our own. It’s tragic, but financially, we can’t keep paying the costs of heavy refactors incurred with new major revisions. Will we be having this discussion again in three to four years, when Symfony 3 is slated for release? When companies during that time period would have made the brutal choice to shift from Symfony 1 to Symfony 2, only to be abandoned again?

IMO, I think Symfony should follow closer to the examples set by industry giants such as Apache, MySQL, and PHP with regards to major revisions. Make them available, but be gentle about the transition. Leave it up to the companies to determine whether or not to upgrade.

Thanks and I <3 Symfony.

My question is, what do other Symfonians think of the upcoming changes?

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